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Here you can define any MIDI related settings. The term MIDI is commonly used to refer to background music found in games, but specifically it refers to synthesizer audio (which can be passed directly from emulated games to modern hardware.

mpu401 = intelligent | uart | none

Specifies which type of MIDI Processing Unit to emulate.

intelligent: (from Wikipedia) The MPU-401 can work in two modes, normal mode and UART mode. "Normal mode" would provide the host system with an 8-track sequencer, MIDI clock output, SYNC 24 signal output, Tape Sync and a metronome; as a result of these features, it is often called "intelligent mode", whereas...
uart: ... this simply emulates UART mode, which reduces the MPU-401 to just relaying in-/outcoming MIDI data bytes.
none: MIDI is not emulated.

mididevice = default | win32 | alsa | oss | coreaudio | coremidi | none

A slightly confusing config name, because this isn't so much which MIDI device to use as which MIDI interface to use. As DOSBox currently does not emulate MIDI, but instead passes it through to an interface that does give MIDI playback support, this setting tells DOSBox which interface to pass MIDI data through to.

default: The default system MIDI playback device is used.
win32: Win32 MIDI playback interface is used.
alsa: Linux's Advanced Linux Sound Architecture playback interface is used.
oss: Linux's Open Sound System playback interface is used.
coreaudio: MacOS X's framework to render the music through the built-in OS X synthesizer.
coremidi: MacOS X's framework to route MIDI commands to any device that has been configured in Audio MIDI Setup.
none: MIDI is disabled.

midiconfig = id of MIDI device

As used by the MIDI interface described above, this specifies the ID which identifies the particular MIDI device to playback MIDI on. Can be determined on Windows using MIXER /LISTMIDI or on Linux using pmidi -l in the console.